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Philip the Fair opened the first Estates General in the cathedral in An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of the flying buttress.
Before the buttresses, all of the weight of the roof pressed outward and down to the walls, and the abutments supporting them. With the flying buttress, the weight was carried by the ribs of the vault entirely outside the structure to a series of counter-supports, which were topped with stone pinnacles which gave them greater weight.
The buttresses meant that the walls could be higher and thinner, and could have much larger windows.
The date of the first buttresses is not known with any great precision beyond an installation date in the 13th century. Art historian Andrew Tallon , however, has argued based on detailed laser scans of the entire structure that the buttresses were part of the original design.
According to Tallon, the scans indicate that "the upper part of the building has not moved one smidgen in years,"  whereas if they were added later some movement from prior to their addition would be expected.
Tallon thus concluded that "flying buttresses were there from the get-go. Portals and nave to the left, a choir in the center, and apse and ambulatory to the right.
The annex to the south is the Sacristy. Early six-part rib vaults of the nave. The ribs transferred the thrust of the weight of the roof downward and outwards to the pillars and the supporting buttresses.
The massive buttresses which counter the outward thrust from the rib vaults of the nave. The weight of the building-shaped pinnacles helps keep the line of thrust safely within the buttresses.
Later flying buttresses of the apse of Notre-Dame 14th century reached 15 metres from the wall to the counter-supports.
John of Jandun recognized the cathedral as one of Paris's three most important buildings [prominent structures] in his Treatise on the Praises of Paris :.
That most glorious church of the most glorious Virgin Mary, mother of God, deservedly shines out, like the sun among stars. And although some speakers, by their own free judgment, because [they are] able to see only a few things easily, may say that some other is more beautiful, I believe, however, respectfully, that, if they attend more diligently to the whole and the parts, they will quickly retract this opinion.
Where indeed, I ask, would they find two towers of such magnificence and perfection, so high, so large, so strong, clothed round about with such multiple varieties of ornaments?
Where, I ask, would they find such a multipartite arrangement of so many lateral vaults, above and below? Where, I ask, would they find such light-filled amenities as the many surrounding chapels?
Furthermore, let them tell me in what church I may see such a large cross, of which one arm separates the choir from the nave. Finally, I would willingly learn where [there are] two such circles, situated opposite each other in a straight line, which on account of their appearance are given the name of the fourth vowel [O]; among which smaller orbs and circles, with wondrous artifice, so that some arranged circularly, others angularly, surround windows ruddy with precious colors and beautiful with the most subtle figures of the pictures.
In fact, I believe that this church offers the carefully discerning such cause for admiration that its inspection can scarcely sate the soul.
During the Renaissance , the Gothic style fell out of style, and the internal pillars and walls of Notre-Dame were covered with tapestries.
In , rioting Huguenots damaged some of the statues of Notre-Dame, considering them idolatrous. He tasked Robert de Cotte with the renovation.
Cotte replaced the rood screen with a sumptuous and gilded wrought iron fence, opened up the choir and ambulatory, and removed the tombs in the nave.
Since , the Parisian goldsmith guild had made regular donations to the cathedral chapter. In , it was decided that the guild would donate a large altarpiece every year on the first of May.
These works came to be known as the grands mays. The prestigious commission was awarded to the most prominent painters and, after , members of the Academie royale.
Seventy-six paintings had been donated by , when the custom was discontinued for financial reasons.
Those works were confiscated in and the majority were subsequently dispersed among regional museums in France. Those that remained in the cathedral were removed or relocated within the building by the 19th-century restorers.
An altarpiece depicting the Visitation, painted by Jean Jouvenet in , was also located in the cathedral. Noailles also strengthened the buttresses, galleries, terraces, and vaults.
The medieval stained glass windows, except the rosettes, were removed and replaced with plain, white glass panes. After the French Revolution in , Notre-Dame and the rest of the clergy's property in France was seized and made public property.
For a time the Goddess of Liberty replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars. Napoleon also named Paris's new bishop, Jean-Baptiste de Belloy , who restored the cathedral's interior.
The building's exterior was whitewashed and the interior decorated in Neoclassical , then in vogue. After the Napoleonic Wars , Notre-Dame was in such a state of disrepair that Paris officials considered its demolition.
The book was an enormous success, raising awareness of the cathedral's decaying state. The next year, Viollet-le-Duc submitted a budget of 3,, francs , which was reduced to 2,, francs, for the restoration of Notre-Dame and the construction of a new sacristy building.
This budget was exhausted in , and work stopped as Viollet-le-Duc made proposals for more money. When Lassus died in , Viollet-le-Duc was left sole architect of the project until its completion on 31 May One of the latter items was a taller and more ornate spire , to replace the original 13th century spire, which had been removed in The construction of the sacristy was especially financially costly.
During the liberation of Paris in August , the cathedral suffered some minor damage from stray bullets. Some of the medieval glass was damaged, and was replaced by glass with modern abstract designs.
The stone masonry of the cathedral's exterior had deteriorated in the 19th and 20th century due to increased air pollution in Paris, which accelerated erosion of decorations and discoloured the stone.
By the late s, several gargoyles and turrets had also fallen off or become too loose to remain in place. The set of four 19th-century bells atop the northern towers at Notre-Dame were melted down and recast into new bronze bells in , to celebrate the building's th anniversary.
They were designed to recreate the sound of the cathedral's original bells from the 17th century. Notre-Dame began a year-long celebration of the th anniversary of the laying of the first building block for the cathedral on 12 December Around 1, visitors were evacuated from the cathedral.
French police arrested two people on 8 September after a car containing seven gas canisters was found near Notre-Dame.
On 10 February , French police arrested four persons in Montpellier already known by authorities to have ties to radical Islamist organizations on charges of plotting to travel to Paris and attack the cathedral.
On 15 April the cathedral caught fire, destroying the spire and the "forest" of oak roof beams supporting the lead roof.
According to later studies, the fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at The smoke detectors immediately signaled the fire to a cathedral employee, who did not summon the fire brigade but instead sent a cathedral guard to investigate.
Instead of going to the correct attic, the guard was sent to the wrong location, to the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported there was no fire.
The guard telephoned his supervisor, who did not immediately answer. About fifteen minutes later the error was discovered, whereupon the guard's supervisor told him to go to the correct location.
The fire brigade was still not notified. By the time the guard had climbed the three hundred steps to the cathedral attic the fire was well advanced.
The spire of the cathedral collapsed at , bringing down some tonnes of stone and lead. The firefighters inside were ordered back down. By this time the fire had spread to the north tower, where the eight bells were located.
The firefighters concentrated their efforts in the tower. They feared that, if the bells fell, they could wreck the tower, and endanger the structure of the other tower and the whole cathedral.
They had to ascend a stairway threatened by fire, and to contend with low water pressure for their hoses. As other firefighters watered the stairway and the roof, a team of twenty climbed up the narrow stairway of the south tower, crossed to the north tower, lowered hoses to be connected to fire engines outside the cathedral, and sprayed water on the fire beneath the bells.
By , they were finally able to bring the fire under control. Since , France's cathedrals including Notre-Dame have been owned by the state, which is self-insured.
Some costs might be recovered through insurance coverage if the fire is found to have been caused by contractors working on the site.
AXA also provided insurance coverage for some of the relics and artworks in the cathedral. President Emmanuel Macron said approximately firefighters helped to battle the fire.
One firefighter was seriously injured and two police officers were hurt during the blaze. An ornate tapestry woven in the early s is going on public display for only the third time in recent decades.
The decoration was rescued from Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral after the fire. For the first time in more than years, the Christmas mass was not hosted at the cathedral on 25 December , due to the ongoing restoration work after the fire.
Immediately after the fire, President Macron promised that Notre-Dame would be restored, and called for the work to be completed within five years.
President Macron suggested he was open to a "contemporary architectural gesture". Even before the competition rules were announced, architects around the world offered suggestions: the proposals included a meter spire made of carbon fibre, covered with gold leaf; a roof built of stained glass; a greenhouse; a garden with trees, open to the sky; and a column of light pointed upwards.
French culture minister Franck Riester promised that the restoration "will not be hasty. In October , the French government announced that the first stage of reconstruction, the stabilising of the structure against collapse, would take until the end of Reconstruction could not begin before early President Macron announced that he hoped the reconstructed Cathedral could be finished by Spring , in time for the opening of the Summer Olympics.
The first task of the restoration is the removal of — tonnes of melted metal tubes, the remains of the scaffolding, which remained on the top after the fire, and could still fall onto the vaults and cause the collapse of the structure.
This stage began in February and continued through April A large crane, eighty-four metres high, was put in place next to the cathedral to help remove the scaffolding.
On 15 March , the dismantling and removal of the melted scaffolding from the cathedral roof and interior was halted, due to the health and safety restrictions caused by the COVID pandemic.
Reconstruction resumed, with social distancing, on 27 April On 10 April , the Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit , and a handful of participants, all in protective clothing, performed a Good Friday service inside the cathedral.
A new phase of the restoration commenced on 8 June Two teams of workers began descending into the roof to remove the tangle of tubes of the old scaffolding melted by the fire.
The workers will use saws to cut up the forty thousand pieces of scaffolding, weighing altogether two hundred tons, which will be carefully lifted out of the roof by an eighty-meter tall crane.
The 19th-century spire was destroyed in the fire. The rooster reliquary atop the spire. It was found lightly damaged in the rubble after the fire.
The towers were the last major element of the cathedral to be constructed. The south tower was built first, between and , and the north tower between and The newer north tower is slightly larger, as can be seen when they are viewed from directly in front of the church.
The contrefort or buttress of the north tower is also larger. The north tower was accessible to visitors by a stairway, whose entrance was on the north side of the tower.
The stairway has steps, and has a stop at the Gothic hall at the level of the rose window, where visitors could look over the parvis and see a collection of paintings and sculpture from earlier periods of the cathedral's history.
The ten bells of the cathedral are located in the south tower. A lead-roofed water reservoir between the two towers — behind the colonnade and the gallery and before the nave and the pignon gable — provides water for firefighting.
The original spire was constructed in the 13th century, probably between and It was battered, weakened and bent by the wind over five centuries, and finally was removed in The entire spire weighed tonnes.
In front of each group is a symbol representing one of the four evangelists: a winged ox for Saint Luke,  a lion for Saint Mark, an eagle for Saint John and an angel for Saint Matthew.
Just days prior to the fire, the statues were removed for restoration. The rooster weathervane atop the spire contained three relics: a tiny piece from the Crown of Thorns in the cathedral treasury, and relics of Saint Denis and Saint Genevieve , patron saints of Paris.
They were placed there in by Archbishop Jean Verdier , to protect the congregation from lightning or other harm.
The rooster with relics intact was recovered in the rubble shortly after the fire. The martyr Saint Denis , holding his head, over the Portal of the Virgin.
The Gothic cathedral was a liber pauperum , a "poor people's book", covered with sculptures vividly illustrating biblical stories, for the vast majority of parishioners who were illiterate.
The sculpture of the right portal shows the coronation of the Virgin Mary , and the left portal shows the lives of saints who were important to Parisians, particularly Saint Anne , the mother of the Virgin Mary.
The exteriors of cathedrals and other Gothic churches were also decorated with sculptures of a variety of fabulous and frightening grotesques or monsters.
These included the gargoyle , the chimera , a mythical hybrid creature which usually had the body of a lion and the head of a goat, and the Strix or stryge, a creature resembling an owl or bat , which was said to eat human flesh.
The strix appeared in classical Roman literature; it was described by the Roman poet Ovid , who was widely read in the Middle Ages, as a large-headed bird with transfixed eyes, rapacious beak, and greyish white wings.
The gargoyles , which were added in about , had a more practical purpose. They were the rain spouts of the cathedral, designed to divide the torrent of water which poured from the roof after rain, and to project it outwards as far as possible from the buttresses and the walls and windows where it might erode the mortar binding the stone.
To produce many thin streams rather than a torrent of water, a large number of gargoyles were used, so they were also designed to be a decorative element of the architecture.
The rainwater ran from the roof into lead gutters, then down channels on the flying buttresses, then along a channel cut in the back of the gargoyle and out of the mouth away from the cathedral.
Amid all the religious figures, some of the sculptural decoration was devoted to illustrating medieval science and philosophy.
The central pillar of the central door of Notre-Dame features a statue of a woman on a throne holding a sceptre in her left hand, and in her right hand, two books, one open symbol of public knowledge , and the other closed esoteric knowledge , along with a ladder with seven steps, symbolizing the seven steps alchemists followed in their scientific quest of trying to transform ordinary metals into gold.
The stained glass windows of Notre-Dame, particularly the three rose windows , are among the most famous features of the cathedral.
The west rose window, over the portals, was the first and smallest of the roses in Notre-Dame. It is 9. None of the original glass remains in this window; it was recreated in the 19th century.
The north rose was created in about , and the south rose in about The south rose in the transept is particularly notable for its size and artistry.
It is The south rose has 94 medallions, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth.
The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out.
The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis , Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace.
The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects. The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century.
These are the oldest glass in the window. Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles.
Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. The south rose had a difficult history. In it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until — It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed.
The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style.
The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass. In the s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows.
The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier , are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and colour to try to recreate the luminosity of the cathedral's interior in the 13th century.
The fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The crypt of Notre-Dame is located below the nave and choir.
It should not be confused with the Archeological Crypt which is outside of the cathedral underneath the Parvis. It is not currently open to the public.
The organ was dedicated in In , Charles Mutin modified and added several stops ; in , an electric blower was installed. An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in Between and , the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.
In autumn , the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console.
Between and , Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The current organ has stops ranks on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8, pipes.
Coupure Chamade. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. Replay system. The cathedral has ten bells.
The bourdon , called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tonnes  and tuned to F sharp, has accompanied major historical events since its 15th-century casting, [ citation needed ] such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II.
It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September ,  and on special holidays like Christmas , Easter , and Ascension.
Four bells replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the North Tower in , these ring daily for the Angelus and the chiming of the hours.
In , a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the structure of Notre-Dame, so that they could be heard inside.
These are mute, although a project is planned to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in are stored, as of February About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution.
The construction of bells was done with accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work was entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell.
Each of the new bells is named to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame.
Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie. At six tonnes and playing G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral.
Marie is also called a Little Bourdon petite bourdon or a drone bell because it is located alongside Emmanuel in the south tower. Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings distinctive from the other bells.
The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary and "The way is looking for travellers".
Below the phrase is an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi.
It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower.
This rings only on 1 January New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events. Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size. Gabriel is the largest bell; it weighs four tonnes and plays an A sharp.
Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in , it also chimes the hour through the day. Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events.
It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North. It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai.
Named after two saints: St. Anne , Mary's mother, and St. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues.
Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
Denis is the third largest bell in the North Tower and fifth largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after St. Denis , the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around the year ; it weighs 2 tonnes and plays a C sharp.
This bell includes the third phrase of the Angelus, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord". There are seven circular lines representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the seven Sacraments.
Marcel is the fourth largest bell in the North Tower and sixth largest bell in the cathedral. It plays a D sharp and weighs 1.
It is named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the fifth century.
The bell that bears his name has engraved upon it the fourth sentence of the Angelus, "Be it done unto me according to Thy word". Stephen , the first Christian martyr.
It plays an E sharp and weighs 1. It plays an F and weighs 1. It has two silver stripes above the skirt and one silver stripe above the nameplate.
This bell is used for weddings and sometimes chimes the hour replacing Gabriel, most likely on a chime called the Ave Maria. Maurice is the seventh largest bell in the North Tower and second smallest in the cathedral.
It is named after Maurice de Sully , the bishop of Paris who laid the first stone for the construction of the cathedral. It includes the inscription, "Pray for us, Holy Mother of God".
It plays a G sharp and weighs one tonne. It has two gray stripes below the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings.
Jean Marie is the smallest bell of the cathedral. It plays an A sharp and weighs 0. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt. Beispielsätze für dame dame!
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